- NF P03-100-1995 - 中外标准 - NFBASE- 1995/1 - 现行
关键词：Construction Design Preventive actions Principles Risk
The significance of the LCA method is that it is a comprehensive technique for taking into account all relevant monetary values over the project design life and provides a measure of the total cost of the material, system, or structure.
The LCA method can be effectively applied in both the preconstruction and bid stages of projects. After bids are taken, real costs can be used instead of estimates.
1.1 This practice covers procedures for least cost (life cycle) analysis (LCA) of materials, systems, or structures proposed for use in the construction of concrete culvert, storm sewer, and sanitary sewer systems.
Note 18212;As intended in this practice, examples of analyses include, but are not limited to the following: (1) materials-pipe linings and coatings, concrete wall thicknesses, cements, additives, etc.; (2) systems-circular pipe, box sections, multiple lines, force mains, etc.; and (3) structures-wet and dry wells, pump and lift stations, etc.
1.2 The LCA method includes costs associated with planning, engineering, construction (bid price), maintenance, rehabilitation and replacement, and cost deductions for any residual value at the end of the proposed project design life.
1.3 For each material, system, or structure, the LCA method determines in present value constant dollars, the total of all initial and future costs over the project design life, and deducts any residual value.
1.4 Major factors in the LCA method include project design life, service life, and relevant interest and inflation rates.
- ASTM C1131-1995(2007) - 中外标准 - ASTM- 1995/1 - 现行
关键词：通货膨胀 设计 项目投标 建筑经济 混凝土涵洞 涵洞用管 周期成本LCC分析 重要的影响 排污管 混凝土排污管 雨水沟 最低成本分析LCA 最低成本使用周期分析 涵洞的最低成本使用周期分析 生活 预施工评价 项目设计周期 排污沟系统 康复 雨水管 规程 风暴 维修 混凝土 建 acceptance criteria concrete costs culvert inflation rate interest rate least cost analysis life cycle analysis pipe procedures project design life sanitary sewer service life storm sewer
Studies of indoor air problems are often iterative in nature. A thorough engineering evaluation of a building (1-4) is sometimes sufficient to identify likely causes of indoor air problems. When these investigations and subsequent remedial measures are not sufficient to solve a problem, more intensive investigations may be necessary.
This guide provides the basis for determining when probability sampling methods are needed to achieve statistically defensible inferences regarding the goals of a study of indoor air quality. The need for probability sampling methods in a study of indoor air quality depends on the specific objectives of the study. Such methods may be needed to select a sample of people to be asked questions, examined medically, or monitored for personal exposures. They may also be needed to select a sample of locations in space and time to be monitored for environmental contaminants.
This guide identifies several potential obstacles to proper implementation of probability sampling methods in studies of indoor air quality in buildings and presents procedures that overcome those obstacles or at least minimize their impact.
Although this guide specifically addresses sampling people or locations across time within a building, it also provides important guidance for studying populations of buildings. The guidance in this document is fully applicable to sampling locations to determine environmental quality or sampling people to determine environmental effects within each building in the sample selected from a larger population of buildings.
1.1 This guide covers criteria for determining when probability sampling methods should be used to select locations for placement of environmental monitoring equipment in a building or to select a sample of building occupants for questionnaire administration for a study of indoor air quality. Some of the basic probability sampling methods that are applicable for these types of studies are introduced.
1.2 Probability sampling refers to statistical sampling methods that select units for observation with known probabilities (including probabilities equal to one for a census) so that statistically defensible inferences are supported from the sample to the entire population of units that had a positive probability of being selected into the sample.
1.3 This guide describes those situations in which probability sampling methods are needed for a scientific study of the indoor air quality in a building. For those situations for which probability sampling methods are recommended, guidance is provided on how to implement probability sampling methods, including obstacles that may arise. Examples of their application are provided for selected situations. Because some indoor air quality investigations may require application of complex, multistage, survey sampling procedures and because this standard is a guide rather than a practice, the references in Appendix X1 are recommended for guidance on appropriate probability sampling methods, rather than including expositions of such methods in this guide.
1.4 Units8212;The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
- ASTM D5791-1995(2012)e1 - 中外标准 - ASTM- 1995/1 - 现行
关键词：室内空气质量 indoor air quality probability sampling methods random sampling survey sampling
This practice can be applied to the requirements for serviceability of many functional occupant groups, provided that an appropriate set of requirement classifications for each type has been established.
This practice can be used to ascertain the requirements of a group or organization at the time when the group (1) needs to ascertain the serviceability of the facility it occupies; (2) is contemplating a move and needs to assess the relative capability of several existing facilities to perform as required, before deciding to rent, lease, or buy; (3) needs to compare its requirements to the serviceability of a facility that is being planned, or is designed but is not yet built; (4) is planning to remodel or rehabilitate the space it occupies and needs to establish the required level of serviceability that the remodeled or rehabilitated facility will have to meet.
This practice is not affected by the complexity of the requirement for serviceability.
This practice can be used by any individual with sufficient organizational, functional, and technical knowledge to act as an informed facilitator. The individual charged with the task of leading the process of establishing the serviceability requirements of an occupant group or organization needs basic facilitation and interviewing skills.
This practice provides a means of setting typical required serviceability levels for any serviceability topic, and of comparing the required serviceability levels for one occupant group or organization against levels set by others.
This practice provides a means for organizations to set a profile of requirements for serviceability for each generic type of occupant group within that organization.
This practice enables an organization to compare an occupantx0027;s profile to a generic profile rapidly.
This practice provides a means for organizations to identify and validate exceptional needs of their occupants rapidly.
This practice provides a means of comparing the requirement levels of various occupant groups within an organization.
This practice provides a method for comparing how well an occupantx0027;s requirements for serviceability match the capabilities of different buildings or facilities, despite differences such as location, structure, mechanical systems, age, and building shape.
This practice provides a framework that allows design professionals and facility managers to select the most cost-effective means of providing a facility that will best provide the required levels of serviceability.
This practice helps the occupants to understand how various serviceability requirements interact and impact on the overall functionality of a building or building-related facility and on its level of serviceability for each topic.
By providing a direct link between the features of a facility and its level of serviceability on any topic, the descriptions of each level clarify how various subsystems and materials used in a facility interact to provide that level of serviceability.
This practice is not intended for, and is not suitable for, use for regulatory purposes, nor for fire hazard assessment, nor for fire risk assessment.
1.1 This practice is a definitive procedure for setting requirements for the serviceability of a building or building-related facility.
1.2 This practice is not intended to be used for regulatory purposes.
1.3 This practice can be used for setting the profile of serviceability requirements of an occupant group in an existing building or building-related facility or of a group planning to move and looking at new accommodations to rent, buy, or build.
1.4 This practice can be used for setting the profile of serviceability requirements of an owner......
- ASTM E1679-1995(2012) - 中外标准 - ASTM- 1995/1 - 现行
关键词：building facility facility occupants function generic requirements package office performance rating rating scale requirements serviceability use
Applies to the operation, inspection, and maintenance of any vessel fitted with machinery for the purpose of removing or relocating of material from or in a body of water.
- ANSI/ASSE A10.15-1995 - 中外标准 - ANSI- 1995/1 - 现行
关键词：建筑工程 拆除 疏浚 安全性要求 Constructions Demolition Dredging Safety requirements
1 This International Standard describes the content of a brief for building design. 2 It can be used from the time when the client first considers the possible need for a building project. It should be of value when the client and others are attempting, in consultation with any necessary con-sultants, to document their needs, aims, resources and the context of the project, and any other prob-lems arising, in the form of a "brief". This International Standard applies to all kinds and sizes of design project. It can also apply whatever the chosen function or purpose of the brief, for example instructing, promoting discussion, recording, as a basis for evaluation or in a formal competition to select consultants. It can be used by all those taking part in the preparation of the brief, for example clients, con-sultants, users and any others who are authoritative, informed or likely to be affected. However, it has particular relevance for the client who, as initiator and purchaser of the works, will retain the responsibility for the project and its general management, including the choice of a designer, the preparation of the brief and the evaluation of any response to it.
- BS 7832-1995 - 中外标准 - BSBASE- 1995/1 - 现行
关键词：现场勘测 建筑规范 时间测量 管理作业 法律义务 文献 建筑物 设计 规范 计划 生产管理 Check lists Construction Contents Demand planning Design Performances Project planning Standardization Structural design
Gives information on the use of climatic data and its collection and preparation.
- BS 7770-1995 - 中外标准 - BSBASE- 1995/1 - 废止
关键词：基准面 气象学 建筑 空气 湿度 统计方法分析 温度 气候 气候学 文献索引 数据表示 数据布置 气候带 温度测量 建筑物 气象测量 气象观测 太阳辐射 抽样方法 统计分布 降水 风 时间测量 天气 Air Bibliography Buildings Climate Climatic zones Climatology Construction Data layout Data representation Datum Humidity Meteorological measurement Meteorological observatories Meteorology Precipitation (atmospheric) Sampling methods Solar radiation Statistical distribution Statistical methods of analysis Temperature Temperature measurement Time measurement Weather Winds
1.1 This practice covers a definitive procedure for rating the serviceability of a building or building-related facility, that is, for ascertaining its capability to perform the functions for which it is designed, used, or required to be used. A separate scale is used for each topic of serviceability. For each topic, a serviceability level is ascertained. Overall serviceability is expressed as a profile of levels (that is, not as a single number), and may be presented as a bar chart.
1.2 This practice is not intended to be used for regulatory purposes.
1.3 This practice can be used to rate the serviceability of a building or building-related facility that has been planned but not yet built, or which is about to be remodelled or rehabilitated, for example, for which single-line drawings and outline specifications have been prepared.
1.4 This practice specifies how to ascertain serviceability levels for a specific building, but not what would cause a building to be rated at a given level. That information is found in standard classifications for specific topics of serviceability that contain a set of requirement and rating scales. This practice and one or more such standard classifications are mutually dependent. Each requires the other. The format of such standard classifications, and of related information, is described in . An example of the scales written for such classifications is given in .
1.5 This practice does not cover building evaluation, building condition reports, nor diagnosis of performance; nor does it cover instruments, tools or quality of measurements for evaluation, condition reports, or diagnosis of performance.
1.6 This practice applies only to facilities that are building constructions, parts thereof, or building-related. While this practice may be useful in rating the serviceability of facilities that are not building constructions, such facilities are outside the scope of this practice.
1.7 The process for creating or adapting a set of classifications for a specific facility type or category is outside the scope of this practice.
1.8 This practice contains the following information:
- ASTM E1334-1995(2005) - 中外标准 - ASTM- 1995/1 - 现行
关键词：适用性 种植 建设工程 尺寸选定 设备 building design (of building) facility function facility occupants office performance rating rating scale remodel rehabilitation requirements serviceability use
- SL/T 149-1995 - 中外标准 - HBBASE- 1995/1 - 废止
关键词：水文数据 固态存贮收集系统 存贮收集系统 通用技术 技术条件
The document specifies the types and content of building and engineering drawings used in the planning of buildings and other structures as well as basic rules for the representation of structures in drawings for planning purposes, e.g. for the design approval and construction of buildings. It applies to building and civil engineering drawings prepared by hand or with the aid of computers#,,#
- DIN 1356-1-1995 - 中外标准 - DINBASE- 1995/1 - 现行
关键词：布置 作标记 建筑 表示法 建筑图纸 尺寸选定 结构 图纸 工程图 建筑物 实体式结构 规范(批准) 施工 建设 architectural drawings dimensioning layout structures representations drawings engineering drawings solid type of construction construction marking specification (approval) buildings